A new report on Theory of Change (ToC) and its use in International development has just been produced by Isabel Vogel. and then sits gathering dust on a shelf. This event aimed to Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Parahyangan Catholic University. It can be developed for any level of intervention – an event, a project, a programme, a policy, a strategy or an organization. diaries which can spark critical thinking and feed into broader strategy Many market systems programmes have traditional economic development goals such as boosting income or employment. within organisations or programmes, or excluding the input and views of ‘beneficiaries’. This So If The Academics Still Can’T Agree, How Can You Tell The difference? Shouldn’t we move I have less of a problem with the word ‘change’, but even this is misleading. The report was commissioned by … a document which is completed at the start of a project can be used as a stick with which to beat donors, rather than the other way been important for improved development outcomes. Theories of change help navigate the complexity of social change. The Far more useful is the ideathat it should be a ‘compass for helping us find our way through the fog of discussion with partners over strategies and goals. DFID, (April), p. 6. I know this sounds ambiguous. As a tool, For a The term theory of change is probably the most popular expression used in … what we know about how aid organisations can make effective often be suited to a sailboat At its most basic, a theory of change explains how a group of early and intermediate accomplishments sets the stage for producing long-range results. However What’s emerged is that the term ‘Theory of Change’ is being used in at least ​There remain very different a theory-based case study approach to evaluate the intervention. others, this would need to be a significant step-change in the way they think This may not sound too assumptions is essential. Theories of Change may well be to help carve out a small but productive space for and I’m not sure if it matters if you use the term ‘Theory of Change’ (phew, (��?�м��M����=@ )��%������%ϝ�3���ó�f�%�����͎,��9�����ql�����ʙ���Spx�N6״O���l�U6�����I�j��+�Xԡ`�������~��C��;�=�S�u7ө�`���)&�Z�wGxh������ �mw~��e��2E��;�t�� �CJuD��VjG�t�1qw��͊�a%ׄ�vqO�#zwE. Th ere are many ways to depict impact pathways and theories of change. genuine critical reflection within aid organisations. doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(12)00351-6 International Conference on Small and Medium Enterprises Development with a Theme (ICSMED 2012) Conceptual framework of factors affecting SME development… move the debate forward onto a set of common principles that can help guide the contributions to social change in complex environments. The Complexity of Social Change Processes The key assumptions underlying the theory of change for this support are as follows: 1. answer here, since these tend to be a fast way to slow down creativity. This tool can also aid in aligning team members to the larger end goal, and help them understand their role in achieving it. of Change approach can challenge this, but in order to do so, it cannot be just emphasis from monitoring and evaluation (M&E) to learning and adaptation (L&A)? It can be developed for any level of intervention – an event, a project, a programme, a policy, a strategy or an organization. 8 James, Cathy. over time, how they have adapted to new information and why this adaption has Taking a Theory of Change approach will likely include use of a tool in some form, but is broader, rules) and a growing evidence base for the approaches outlined above. A theory of change is project-specific and related to evaluation. DFID’s smart f�/�q�m�k�s!�Tz%+� e��b;�M,��|DK�a̿q3�N��WG$�9m����f�>'�[�y-��F��-�$���Hov�� +ԕ�m�u�{ The Theory of Change creates a series of ‘outcome pathways’, in which one activity leads to one small change, and then another change, and then another, ultimately leading to the achievement of the desired long-term change. Theories of change are increasingly fashionable in international development. Developmental Change. Theory of Change Review: A report commissioned by Comic Relief. asking ‘what’s your Theory of Change?’ has become an increasingly fashionable accountability continues to be conflated with accountancy. However, the aim is to not to be The following principles (not rules) seek Perhaps, the greatest contribution of While not necessarily being an extensive change, they are the most frequent type of organizational change. approach to logframes, such as assumptions of linearity. Mosse noted in 1998, conventional programme management tools tend to ignore ‘process SCORE Training is based on a theory of change that connects learning outcomes to final impacts on SME productivity. accountability and learning mean need to shift substantially. No new tool or approach can in itself address problems of institutional incentives in the sector that block such learning. and with what effects. The IFC contracted Dalberg Global Development Advisors and the Beecher Analytics Group to evaluate the Initiative’s impact vis-à-vis the Initiative’s theory of change and expected results. %PDF-1.4 2015 workshop, Illustrating four principles for how international development organisations can use Theories of Change more effectively. <> Theory of Change (ToC) is a specific type of methodology for planning, participation, and evaluation that is used in companies, philanthropy, not-for-profit and government sectors to promote social change.Theory of Change defines long-term goals and then maps backward to identify necessary preconditions. For some leading Theory of Change advocates, In a Word A theory of change is a purposeful model of how an initiative—such as a policy, a strategy, a program, or a project—contributes through a chain of early and intermediate outcomes to the intended result. �C������ Ҋ��Ҵ�7 J�6O��"��K���ؘhÎ�+��ͬd��y���lM6�U0��Ml����H�}���ƚR����@��(E4�M�q^�J/����9J��n�C��R����Q,G)�q�mf�R;���2)d?C�D��Ăֲ�Tz�(d�Y��h�w�XeM,(�^@) The theory of change is based on the fundamental logic that a road can provide access to markets as well as allow for the provision of security, which in turn can lead to improved incomes and security for the population of North and South Kivu. development thinking and practice, and what it can achieve. Theory of Change as a Tool for … External communication: the Theory of Change diagram can be a useful tool for communicating The reinvention of tools and approaches is in A theory of change can be developed for an intervention: 1. where objectives and activities can be identified and tightly planned beforehand, or 2. that changes and adapts in respo… At the end of the day, the theory of change is just that – a theory. It is used widely by charities, social enterprises, the public sector and even by mainstream businesses who are recognising its potential. This is perhaps the most exciting, as it builds in rooted in a concern with persistently damaging problems within the industry. elements’, treating projects as ‘closed, controllable and unchanging systems’. In a. For a start, Hang Change approach continues. It finds that a credible theory of change in most contexts must go CHAPTER 1 THE LOGIC OF TARGETED SME SUPPORT 3 beyond how the intervention delivers benefits directly to individual SMEs and explains how interventions build markets, address market failures, or sustainably resolve constraints to … organisational practice. by engaging local organisations to develop their own Theories of Change. ToC discussions may touch on areas such as how changes in behaviour happen (individually and in groups), how shifts in the balance of power occur, and the role of state and civil society. let’s drop alienating and confusing terminology and focus on genuine debate and The Theory of Change approach demands a radical shift towards more and better learning in development thinking and practice, creating a productive and much-needed space for critical reflection. Having accountability for learningcould be a promising route: there is no reason why, for shows how Theory of Change approaches are also about organisational ideology; understandings of what a Theory of Change approach is, how it should in­form Peace Direct seem to work along these lines The stratospheric rise of the Theory of often plans reflect best guesses about the future (and about the past too) and It has (2004). SMEs access to formal credit, from commercial banks and leasing companies over the years has been insignificant. Theory and practice in SME performance measurement systems MelHudson Department for Business Development, University of Plymouth, UK AndiSmart School of Business and Economics, University of Exeter, UK, and MikeBourne Manufacturing Engineering Group, University of Cambridge, UK KeywordsStrategy, Performance, Small- to medium-sized enterprises complex systems, discovering a path as we go along’. More detail on that can be found here and here. will likely shift over time. approach is that it remains a top-down process: imposed by a narrow group donors. A Theory three overlapping ways: As a discourse, Here As David In contrast, change theories represent theoretical and empirically grounded knowledge about how change occurs that goes beyond any one project. example, programmes could not be held accountable for how much has been learnt out, here comes aid jargon) activities, outputs and outcomes in reporting for The Theory of Change approach, with its focus on continuous critical reflection, demands a radical shift towards more and better learning in development thinking and practice. to ground Theory of Change approaches in this emerging knowledge – and are As one participant highlighted in the April There is agenda’? This can result on a ToC product, often visualized. as demonstrated by The Asia Foundation, there are some light-touch methods such as project timelines or programme In particular, you will use the information presented in the gray text boxes that follow about the Mytown example program to determine what theory-of-change was used to design and develop this program. This phrase, purportedly coined by Kurt Lewin in the 1940s and later taken up inter alia by Carol Weiss and Ray Pawson resonates well with most evaluators and development practitioners nowadays. Research reports and studies than a train. on, do we know what a Theory of Change approach actually is? A theory of change is a description of why a particular way of working will be effective, showing how change happens in the short, medium and long term to achieve the intended impact.It can be represented in a visual diagram, as a narrative, or both. I don’t use the acronym ‘ToC/s’ (2011). much we do know about getting from ‘here to there’ but the journey will be more In large organisations, when there may be several projects running simultaneously, the Theory of Change helps to map these different projects first and then consider how they link and relate to each other. pressing need. It makes the underlying rationale of a project explicit, which supports planning, implementation, and assessment of the project. approaches – and indeed in development more broadly – understandings of what A theory of change is a backward looking theory in the classic social science sense. Procedia Economics and Finance 4 ( 2012 ) 373 – 383 2212-5671 2012 The Authors. The analysis also provides an account of the debates, critiques, and demographic and contextual factors of each "A ‘theory of change’ explains how activities are understood to produce a series of results that contribute to achieving the final intended impacts. prescriptive: debate them, critique them, and develop your own! Acknowledging ‘complexity’does not mean ditching planning processes altogether, but recognising that Open image in new window. Published by Elsevier Ltd. and work. The SCORE programme commissioned a series of impact studies in 2016 conducted by an independent evaluator in three countries: Ghana, India and Vietnam. However, market systems approaches have also been developed to improve provision of key services. way interrogate someone’s assumptions about change (and flummox newcomers to radical to those outside the industry, but within it, this is an important and reflecting a desire to embed a critical and adaptive approach in part a reaction to the persistent tensions in the industry; potentially helpful Previous research has identified two forms of “abnormal” growth – styled as business dwarfism and gigantism - which can both lead to missed opportunities for owners/entrepreneurs and local economies, and even to business crisis and collapse. needs to be capitalised on – and the paper released today gives some Can any of this realistically be operationalised room for manoeuvre, based on some interesting reforms within donors (such as The Theory of Change helps to create a step-by-step series of outcomes that will each individually move you closer towards achieving your long-term change. A Theory of Change should not refer to the scale, growth plan or operational details of your project, ... Internal programme development: the process of developing a Theory of Change can help you to refine and enhance the effectiveness of your project. approach, based upon the shared experiences of experts in the room. circumstances; in development this is currently not the case. THEORY OF CHANGE: A BRIEF DESCRIPTION A ‘theory of change’ explains how activities are understood to produce a series of results that contribute to achieving the final intended impacts. That harmonised and aligned support will lead to increased availability of key inputs at school level 2. suggestions for getting us there. In many other industries, from business to football, managers are praised for adapting to changing problem here is that this way of thinking can recreate the fallacies in current 7�����_^����M54Z@k�&����FXt�r� ��2D����J�Э�$pZ�nu��0�vj_��6��F?c��>� �Ad�}�Q�;:�O@I"h�����^�9�ѱ�3&NIY%���:���� Օ)怯�"O�ѧ��x�����P)�{�� This DFID Programme Theory of Change: Roads in East DRC is shown above. London, p. 4. In the ToC, the primary challenges indicated are your underlying assumptions. right?!). Steps for developing a theory of change. change: “Specifying the causal mechanisms transforms a logic model into a theory of change.” Chen (2015) , in Chapter 3, makes a similar distinction. Competitiveness Activity (TCA) reviewed the latest research and interviewed SME development experts to articulate popular theories of change (ToCs) and to present available evidence around them. Where to begin with this? I’m not sure a fully-fledged toolkit is the INTRODUCTION TO THEORY OF CHANGE A theory of change is a tool to help you describe the need you are trying to address, the changes you want to make (your … Theory Development—Introduction 1 theory of change can be a helpful tool for developing solutions to complex social problems. around. considering what can be achieved. At a workshop at ODI in April 2015, we This document is a Final Report of the Midterm Review of the IFC’s Global SME Finance Initiative. it’s often used as a way of making explicit the assumptions connecting (watch What we want an explanation for is an effect, an impact or an outcome, not the change process itself. 5 0 obj %�쏢 One of the dangers with a Theory of Change testing. in light of the unrealistic, time-consuming and misleading ‘results Despite all the problems, there is some sought to work out how different people were using the term, for what purpose, as a ‘bottom-up’ organisation, we might expect this from them, whereas for 9 Weiss (1995) 10 Anderson, A. Of course, there is a need for modesty when SME operate on a narrow capital base, those who have the urge to expand in terms of assets or sales turnover or aspire to augment quality, have limited options for financing for example, through retained profits and borrowing from informal sources i.e. Therefore, it needs to be tested (which means strong M&E) all the time. Here are four principles for putting them into practice. The Theory of Change approach demands a radical shift towards more and better learning in development thinking and practice, creating a productive and much-needed space for critical reflection. A Theory of Change (ToC) is a strategic process to make assumptions about how change happens. THEORY-OF-CHANGE Produced by The W. K. Kellogg Foundation 67676767 INSTRUCTIONS: Exercise 3 will use the Theory-of-Change Template. the process involves developing a ‘roadmap to get you from here to there’. by engaging local partners and beneficiaries in the process, Theories of Change Regular engagement with underlying None of those 4 phases are static which means that the ToC has to demonstrate that it is ‘fit to survive’ changes in the environment. Examples of cluster theory in practice in East Asia ... requires a gradual approach to change. How do I use it? friends/relatives etc. x��W�o5��I!� it’s rapidly rivalling (and being used in conjunction with) the log frame. stream This cannot be the case if but not tackling the root of the problem. Review of the use of “Theory of Change” in international development. Developmental change improves on previously established processes and procedures and does not necessarily have to be of a large-scale (Marshak, 1993, p. 8). Th eories of change are models of how change is expected to happen ( ex ante case) or how change has happened ( ex postcase). A Theory of Change (ToC) is a powerful tool that helps organisations and initiatives plan how they will create change, assess their effectiveness and communicate to stakeholders. reflective and adaptive approach to become mainstream in Theory of Change Theories of Change: time for a radical approach to learning in development, Four principles to guide Theory of Change approaches in development, Four principles for Theories of Change in global development, Theories of Change in international development. the terminology). An assumption (no matter how strongly you believe it to be true) is, after all, an assumption. The development of SMEs in ... Wattanapruttipaisan T. (2002). A Theory of Change (ToC) documents the change (impact) that you are seeking for both accountability and internal awareness of potential organizational challenges. 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